Sabtu, 26 Disember 2015

Mazhab adalah teras kekuatan dan kestabilan Islām



Gambar: Lukisan Arif billah Shaykh Ali al-Khawwas guru kepada Imam al-Sha'rani berhubung mazahib dalam Islam yang pernah wujud pada zaman salaf semuanya benar belaka kerana punca ilmu adalah Shari'ah


oleh Wan Fayhsal



Dalam Islam kita tiada ada apa yang Agama Kristian Katolik ada iaitu "The Church". Bila wafatnya Rasulullah sallahu alayhi wassalam, autoriti agama diwarisi daripada generasi sahabat ke salaf al-salih dan seterusnya. Hatta ketika zaman salaf mazhab fiqh ini cukup banyak antaranya mazhab:



– Saydatina Aisha (radhiyallahu anha)
– Abdullah ibn Umar (radhiyallahu anhu)
– Abdullah ibn Masud (radhiyallahu anhu)
– ‘Ataa
– Mujahid
– Imam al-Layth
– Dawud al-Zahiri
– Abu Hanifa
– Malik
– al-Shafi’i
– Ahmad ibn Hanbal
– Sufyan al-Thawri
– Sufyan ibn ‘Uyayna
– Muhammad ibn Jarir al-Tabari
– Umar ibn Abd al-Aziz
– al-A’mash
– al-Sha’bi
– Ishaq ibn Rahwayh

Lama kelamaan mazhab-mazhab itu pupus kerana kurang penerimaan generasi ulama' baru yang ingin meneruskan mazhab-mazhab tersebut atau pengembangan Mazhab yang Empat (Hanafi, Shafi'i, Maliki, Hanbali) menjadi semakin sistematik dan diterima ramai ikut kesesuaian dengan keadaan masa dan tempat sesebuah masyarakat (macam Hanafi berkembang di kawasan orang-orang A'jam (non-Arab Muslims), Hanbali di jazirah Arab).

Semua mazhab ini hatta yang sudah pupus, puncanya tetap satu iaitu Shari'ah dan Mazhab yang Empat ini sudah cukup merangkumkan (consolidate) sisi-sisi mazhab-mazhab yang sudah pupus tersebut seperti jelas Imām Abd Wahab al-Shaʿrānī dalam "al-Mizān al-Kubrā" - ianya menunjukkan keempat-empat mazhab itu sebenarnya mengimbangi antara satu sama lain antara yang ketat dan yang ringan dalam mengeluarkan hukum yang menzahirkan keadilan Shari'ah.

Bukan itu saja dalam mazhab yang empat, masing-masing ada autoriti yang berbeza "ṭabaqāt" (levels and degrees) dalam mengeluarkan ijtihad (dispensation of legal rulings). 

Dalam mazhab Shafi'i contohnya hanya seorang saja yang layak menjadi (1) "Mujtahid Mustaqil/Mutlaq" - iaitu Imam al-Shafi'i sendiri. Begitu juga para Imam yang memimpin mazhab masing-masing dalam mazhab Hanafi, Hanbali dan Maliki. 

Kemudian barulah ada lapisan kedua autoriti iaitu (2) "Mujtahid Muntasib" . Mujtahid muntasib (affiliated jurist), e.g. Ibn Khuzaimah, Ibn Mundhir, Muhammad Ibn Jarir and Muhammad ibn Nasr,

Kemudian lapisan ketiga (3) "Mujtahid al-Madhhab"/"Ashab al-Wujuh" (mujtahid dalam mazhab Shafi'i), e.g. al-Buwaiti, al-Rabi’, al-Anmati, al-Istikhri, Ibn Abi Hurairah, and al- Sairafi.

Kemudian lapisan keempat (4) Mujtahid al-Fatwa wa al-Tarjih, e.g. al-Mawardi, Abu Tayyib, al-Tabari, Imam al-Haramayn, Abu Ishaq al-Shirazi, al-Ruyani, al-Rafi’i and An-Nawawi.

Dan paling akhir "Al-Hafiz li l-madhhab" dan "Mufti".

Jadi bila kita baca fatwa yang dikeluarkan Al-Ahzar ke, Majlis Fatwa Negara ke, mereka bukan main terjah rujuk Al-Qur'an dan Al-Sunnah dahulu tanpa mereka merujuk fatawa yang telah dikeluarkan oleh para autoriti ini dalam mazhab Shafi'i (atau mazhab lain).

Kadang kala fatawa mereka tidak pun berhujah gunakan dalil al-Qur'an dan ahadith sebaliknya sekadar berhujah menggunakan fatwa para mujtahid ini sekadar memetik nama mereka saja!!! 

"Aik, tak ada dalil Qur'an dan Hadith??" 

Hal ini tentu pelik bagi golongan Al-La Mazhabiyyah tetapi tidak untuk mereka yang memahami apa itu Shari'ah dan cara mengeluarkan hukum iaitu golongan ulama' yang sudah "specialized" menjadi Faqih (plural form "Fuqaha'"). Mereka ini tidak semestinya petah berceramah tapi memiliki "skills" yang tajam dan dalam untuk memahami susur galur mazhab mereka yang amat-amat kaya dengan pelbagai fatwa.

Bayangkan sehebat Imam Al-Ghazali dan Imam al-Nawawi itu pun akur dengan tempat mereka yang selayaknya dalam mazhab Shafi'i. Imam Al-Ghazali boleh saja keluar buat mazhab sendiri sebab beliau memang hebat sangat tapi ada beliau buat begitu? Tidak. Beliau tawadu' kepada Imam Shafi'i dan imam-imam sebelumnya. 

Jadi bila seseorang Mufti yang ada tauliah khusus daripada Dar al-Ifta', mereka bukan semberono keluarkan hukum ikut selera hati sekadar belek al-Qur'an dan kutub sittah Hadith. Mereka juga merujuk semula koleksi ensiklopedia fatawa dalam mazhab sendiri dan juga mazhab lain untuk lihat samada masalah-masalah yang ingin dijawab itu sudah pun dijawab. Kalau ada masalah baru maka barulah digunakan qiyas dengan pertimbangan seperti tahqiq al-manat etc. 

Tapi hari ini, orang kita sudah terputus daripada memahami tradisi agung dalam fiqh ini iaitu menggabungkan diri dengan mazhab dan bertaqlid dalam hal-hal yang cabang (aqidah tak boleh taqlid) dengan menyerahkan autoriti ahkam shari'ah kepada AHLINYA. 

Siapa yang putuskan? Al-La Mazhabiyyah. 

Apa kesannya? Bangunan Shari'ah ini akan runtuh kerana asasnya lemah kerana kita tahu konkrit ambil masa yang lama untuk "cured" dan para mujtahid dalam mazhab juga ambil masa yang lama untuk perteguhkan mazhab masing-masing agar kita umat Islam tidak teraba, keliru dan bertelagah tak sudah macam haiwan dalam zoo mencari jawapan yang sebenarnya sudah pun ada terjawab dengan kemas ratusan tahun dulu macam kes Mawlid dan ucapan tahniah kepada penganut agama lain di hari keramaian mereka. 

Saya pun tak faham dulu pasal autoriti dalam mazhab tapi bila saya baca dan kaji ulasan Imam Ibn Hajar al-Haytami pasal soal mendisipinkan pelajar, wow, saya kagum dengan hujjah beliau yang tidak gunakan langsung ayat qur'an atau hadith sebaliknya sekadar berhujjah gunakan dalil nama para mujtahid dalam ijtihad beliau. (Rujuk tulisan saya "Mendidik sahsiah (taʾdīb) pelajar: Penjelasan Ibn Ḥajar al-Ḥaytamī dalam risalah Taḥrīr al-Maqāl": http://www.rausyanfikir.com/2015/01/mendidik-sahsiah-tadib-pelajar.html)

Disebabkan permasalahan Mawlid dan ucapan tahniah kepada bukan Islam itu universal dan tidak terikat pada soal waqi' (bukan seperti isu salah terjemah nama Allah dalam Bible), maka saya berpegang kepada fatawa yang dikeluarkan oleh Al-Ahzar Syarif, Dar al-Ifta' dan autoriti seperti Shaykh bin Bayyah. 

Gambar: Lukisan Arif billah Shaykh Ali al-Khawwas guru kepada Imam al-Sha'rani berhubung mazahib dalam Islam yang pernah wujud pada zaman salaf semuanya benar belaka kerana punca ilmu adalah Shari'ah.

Selasa, 15 Disember 2015

Islamicate discourse for the new Gilded Age

By Wan Ahmad Fayhsal


The world of 21st century is moving very fast and very much interconnected. Countries flourished more than ever – unprecedented in mankind’s history. Resultant of this, the reordering of international system is getting more rapid by each day, spurred by economic development and new flush of capitals.


China, India, Russia, Brazil and South Africa – or what we called BRICS – is now getting traction. It is a new force to be reckoned with especially as a formidable international pact in counterweighing and reshaping the Anglo-Saxon dominated international system of post-War Europe.


On top of this development, the Muslim world or to borrow Marshall G.S. Hodgson’s ‘Islamicate is still languishing and subordinated under the aegis and influence of traditional superpowers of yesterday and tomorrow.


Debates and discourses on international relations have always been viewed from modern lenses of Eurocentricism or non-Islamic frameworks that view the Muslim polities as mere appendages to the international system.


We have been subjected to various colonialisms – especially at present resource colonialism and our polities are being turned into the ‘theatre of war’ for the Great Game of superpowers in the course of maintaining their hegemony.


How best should we Muslims react to this development? For how long we need to be regarded as mere supporting actors to the dynamics of modern world history? Are we fated to be like this, condemned by God?


This is where to really give meaning to the chaotic situations that we are currently in, like it or not Muslims must return to the basics on what the Prophet Muḥammad ﷺ said, as narrated by Thawbān:
“The people will soon summon one another to attack you as people when eating invite others to share their dish.
Someone asked: Will that be because of our small numbers at that time?
He replied: No, you will be numerous at that time: but you will be scum and rubbish like that carried down by a torrent and Allah will take fear of you from the breasts of your enemy and placed enervation into your hearts.
Someone asked: What is wahn ?    
Messenger of Allah (ﷺ): He replied: Love of the world and dislike of death.


This ḥadīth is sufficed to diagnose both the external and internal state of the ummah. The disease called “al-wahn” can be understood as described by lexicographer like Ibn Manẓūr is a state in which the person feels weak, feeble and languid whether of its body, will power, work and affair. In short it’s a sign of total weakness, enervated; broken inside-out.


The state of the ummah today befits the prophetic vision of "al-wahn" - like scum, and froth in the water (source pic: scottyjordan.uk)


Due to this we are susceptible to what Malek Ben Nabi called colonisabilité – a manifestation of weakening structural feebleness and social dynamics of a society. Although we have moved out from the colonial yoke, we are still very much dependent and subjected to a greater cultural and political force of the present time.


Thus first wave of colonialism is followed by the second wave of neo-colonialism where despite of our wealth due to oil and natural resources we are nothing but a periphery to the core of world-system.


The allusion that Prophet made on the state of Ummah in the ḥadīth earlier is a realized predicament. We are being contained economically, politically and worse culturally by external forces due to our internal brittleness.


The Prophet himself  (ﷺ) gave a clear interpretation of which we as the one who lived throughout these years of decline must able to see through the thick fog that engulfed us for so long since the colonial era.


Write we must.


Lamentation is never the solution. We must rekindle the same spirit of those who came before us in commentating the development of the world from the view and standpoint of Muslim, guided by the supreme sources which Prophet (ﷺ) guaranteed will not lead us astray forever as long as we hold unto them firmly which are the Holy Qurʾān and Prophetic sunnah.


Development of geopolitics in its fullest should be a great concern to us Muslims. We could not afford to remain as spectators and passive recipients to every motions and propositions put forth by other civilizations. We must reclaim our leadership as commanded by God to His prophets who are made leaders by virtue of them fulfilling the commands laid by God – [al-Anbiyāʾ: 73].


For that we must have our set of unique framework and tools that are distinct to the normal framework discussed in geopolitics, international relations, and political economy in order to diagnose the realities that enveloped us all.


Our situational assessments must be made with the Worldview of Islām at the back of our mind, guiding our analytical mind in apprehending not only the causal realities but also the underlying dynamics as well as implicate order which are part and parcel of God’s law for mankind at civilizational level - as what the great Muslim historian and social scientist Ibn Khaldūn and many others have observed and scientifically analyzed.


The New Islamicate


To help us with a more holistic and sturdier framework of analysis, we believe the conceptual device called “Islamicate” bequeathed by the late Quaker historian of Islamic History – Marshall Goodwin Simss Hodgson (d.1968) is very much pertinent for international relations, geopolitics and political economy of Muslim world vis-à-vis other civilizations. Islamicate is a central unit of analysis of world history which Hodgson’s skillfully applied in his attempt to situate Islam and Muslim in the course of World History.


Hodgson was a very meticulous scholar. He carefully distinguished and analyzed salient adjectival concepts that tried to describe Islam and its socio-cultural influence from the outside.


The three-volume work written by the late Marshal G. S. Hodgson where he first articulated the concept of "Islamicate"


Adjectives such as ‘Islamic’, ‘Islamdom’ could not do justice in framing his queries on Islamic civlizations and its impact not only to Muslim but also non-Muslims and world at large. For this he creatively conjured a new concept of ‘Islamicate’ which seek to capture:


“a culture, centred on a lettered tradition, which has been historically distinctive of Islamdom the society, and which has been naturally shared in by both Muslims and non-Muslims who participate at a fully in the society of Islamdom.”


“ ‘Islamicate’ would refer not directly to the religion, Islam, itself but to social and cultural complex historically associated with Islam and the Muslims, both among Muslims themselves and even when found among non-Muslims.” (Marshall G. S. Hodgson, The Venture of Islam, p.58-59)


In light of this inclusive and expansive concept, we seek to reposition and reclaim the Islamicate discourse from the marginalia of international relations, political economy as well as geopolitics of today.


Muslim writers must narrate and commentate events and occurrences using sound framework as the above that fits the architectonic framework of Worldview of Islām as exemplified by luminous scholars of the past and present in addressing the concerns of the age in the area of geopolitics, international relations and political economy.


For the small efforts that we can contribute in generating greater good for the Ummah and mankind at large in evidencing raison d'être of Islām in geopolitics, international relations and political economy is nothing less than the Prophetic spirit of “And We did not send you (Muhammad) except as a Mercy to the worlds” [al-ʾAnbiyāʾ:107]).


The article was first published by The Malaysian Reserve, 3rd July 2015.